Background and Objectives: According to researches, sponges produce the most secondary metabolites with biological activities among aquatic animals. In this scientific study, we investigated the antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of terpenoid extracted, phytol, from Dysidea avara of Hengam Island, Persia Gulf.
Methods: In this study, dried sponge powder was extracted in acetone by maceration method. Then, the terpenoids were extracted by silica gel column chromatography from acetone extract by using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent. Biological activities of extracted compounds were evaluated by XTT assay on KB / C152, HUT-78 / C185 cancer cell line and Hek293 healthy cell for Cytotoxic, tubular dilution test on Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa salubilosa, Klebsiella, Klebsiella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Nocardia brasiliensis and the fungal, yeast strains, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans for antibacterial and antifungal test. The selected phytol was identified by gas chromatography.
Findings: The phytol compound was killed fifty percent of cancer cells at concentrations of 67.21μg/ml on oral epithelial cancer cells and concentrations 56.10 μg/ml on lymphocyte cancer cells. Phytol compound were killed gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus at 200-300 µg/ml concentrations and at 1000 -2000 µg/ml concentrations Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas salmonella and the fungal Aspergillus, yeast strains C. albicans. This study investigated the effects of phytol fraction extracted from D. avara sponge from the Hengam Island, Persian Gulf. The cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracted fractions have been demonstrated.
Conclusion: The results showed that complementary experiments, isolation and purification of bioactive compounds can be an effective step in the extraction of natural compounds for the production of drugs, cosmetics and food.